Articles Which Support and Emphasise Islam as the Religion of the Federation

There are many Articles in the Federal Constitution that support and emphasise Islam as the religion of the Federation.

Among them are:

  • Freedom of ReligionArticle 11 (1) and Article 11 (4) – provides that the interests of the Muslims shall not be compromised

Beside the above, there are other articles which also support and emphasise Islam as the Religion of the Federation:

Article 12 (2)

Every religious group has the right to establish and maintain institutions for the education of children in its own religion, and there shall be no discrimination on the ground only of religion in any law relating to such institutions or in the administration of any such law, but it shall be lawful for the Federation or a State to establish or maintain or assist in establishing or maintaining Islamic institutions or provide or assist in providing instruction in the religion of Islam and incur such expenditure as may be necessary for the purpose.

Note: Article 12 should be read together with Art 8 and the Fourth Schedule which effectively supports the fact that the Constitution emplace Islam as the religion of the Federation and confer privileges on the Muslims including funding from the government for the purposes of educating the Muslims.

Article 160

“Malay” means a person who professes the religion of Islam, habitually speaks the Malay language, conforms to Malay custom…

Article 152 (1)

The national language shall be the Malay language and shall be in such script as Parliament by law provide.

Note: These Articles proves that from tradition and history a Malay is synonymous to Islam and the understanding of Islam.

Fourth Schedule – Oaths of Yang Di Pertuan Aging and Timbalan Yang Di Pertuan Agong

The Oaths invoking the names of Allah are contained in the Fourth Schedule;

Kami… ibni … Yang DiPertuan Agong bagi Malaysia bersumpah dengan melafazkan:

Wallahi; Wabillahi; Watallahi; Maka dengan lafaz ini berikrarlah kami dengan sesungguh dan dengan sebenarnya mengaku akan taat setia pada menjalankan dengan adilnya pemerintahan bagi Malaysia dengan mengikut sebagaimana Undang-undang dan Perlembagaan Negeri yang telah disah dan dimasyhurkan dan yang akan disah dimasyhurkan di masa hadapan ini. Dan lagi kami berikrar mengaku dengan sesungguh dan dengan sebenarnya memliharakan pada setiap masa Ugama Islam dan berdiri tetap di atas pemerintahan yang adil dan aman di dalam negeri.

Eight Schedule – Provisions to be Inserted in State Constitution

The Ruler may advise

(d) any function as Head of the religion of Islam or relating to the custom of the Malays.

Note: The Fourth Schedule, The Eight Schedule reiterates the position of Islam as the religion of the Federation and the sacred duty of the YDPA as the custodian and protector of the religion of Islam and Malay rights.

Ninth Schedule


The State List contains the purview of Islamic practices and percepts of Islam.

Note: The State has exclusive prerogative to administer Islamic law practices, the control of propagating doctrines and beliefs among persons professing the religion of Islam; the determination of matters of Islamic law and doctrine Malay custom.

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